A Solution Found to Prevent Chronic Sinusitis Infections without Antibiotics

This is an odd subject for me to write about, but one that I’ve been intimately familiar with for many years, and I’ve recently discovered a solution for preventing this condition that does not involve antibiotics. This works for me, and it is possible that this information may be helpful to others as well, so I thought it would be beneficial to document this.


I’m referring to a condition called chronic rhinosinusitis, or chronic sinusitis. In my case, this specifically relates to the development of seemingly unavoidable life-threatening infections that require the recurrent use of antibiotics to address.


I have been fighting with this condition for over twenty years, and have seen numerous doctors and specialists regarding this, and nobody could recommend a workable solution to prevent the recurring infections that have plagued me every four to eight weeks during that time. I discovered early on that these were life threatening infections if left untreated by antibiotics, when I almost died from one such in 2001 and in 2006. This was a double-edged sword however, because the continual use of these antibiotics made the condition increasingly difficult to treat as my resistance to most relevant antibiotics grew. So much so that by the end of 2016, I found myself in an equally precarious situation where these recurring infections were not responding to multiple courses of differing antibiotics and Prednisone in succession, and fewer options remained each time.


The form of chronic sinusitis that affected me was one of the more difficult types caused by uncontrollable bacterial infections trapped specifically within encapsulated sinuses, aggravated by pathway differences in my anatomy due to prior injury that doctors could not accurately map or diagnose. As a result, I was told that surgery was not an option, and the only preventative solution I was ever given by medical professionals was to irrigate the area regularly; which I was already doing. So, by the end of 2016, when most antibiotics stopped working for me, I was somewhat desperate to find an alternative solution. My initial research was not encouraging however. I had no idea that chronic sinusitis was such a widespread condition.


According to the CDC, 29.4 million people in the United States were diagnosed with Chronic Sinusitis in 2015, roughly 12.1% of the country’s population. [1] The American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) reported in 2016 that the annual costs associated with chronic sinusitis accounted for approximately 5% of the annual U.S. health care budget: “For 2011, this resulted in an expenditure of $60.2 to 64.5 billion USD for the treatment of patients with CRS”, and “The authors showed that this complex chronic inflammatory disease has an economic burden that continues to rise substantially”. [2]


My personal experiences with medical diagnosis and treatment were accurately reflected in the article titled Treatment Options for Chronic Sinusitis by the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center published in 2009: “Sinusitis is the most common chronic condition for which patients seek treatment.” “Sinusitis — both acute and chronic — is typically diagnosed based on a physical exam and symptoms. Although this does not confirm a diagnosis and whether the infection is bacterial, antibiotics are commonly prescribed.” “For chronic sinusitis, patients are typically prescribed a minimum of three weeks of antibiotics.” “Prednisone is most commonly used as an adjunctive treatment to antibiotics.” [3]


Also, my personal experience with increasing antibiotic resistance was reflected in the 2015 report titled The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis by the US National Library of Medicine: “The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. The antibiotic resistance crisis has been attributed to the overuse and misuse of these medications, as well as a lack of new drug development by the pharmaceutical industry due to reduced economic incentives and challenging regulatory requirements.” [4]


Another report also stated that the farming industry is contributing heavily to the increase of antibiotic resistance, in a report titled The Overuse of Antibiotics in Food Animals Threatens Public Health by the Consumers Union: “According to the federal Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, ‘the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs has resulted in drug resistance that threatens to reverse the medical advances of the last seventy years.'” “Approximately 80 percent of the antibiotics sold in the United States are used in meat and poultry production.” “The National Research Council (part of the National Academy of Sciences) concluded that “a link can be demonstrated between the use of antibiotics in food animals, the development of resistant microorganisms in those animals, and the zoonotic spread of pathogens to humans.” “Most recently in 2012, the FDA stated ‘Misuse and overuse of antimicrobial drugs creates selective evolutionary pressure that enables antimicrobial resistant bacteria to increase in numbers more rapidly than antimicrobial susceptible bacteria and thus increases the opportunity for individuals to become infected by resistant bacteria.'” “The meat and poultry production industry argues, however, that there is no harm in this.” [5]


So, from this information I could only conclude that my condition was unpreventable and incurable, and that my situation would get progressively worse and my options more limited as my resistance to antibiotics increased. This appeared to be the only path open to me according to conventional methods, which is the same path that I had been traversing for the last twenty years as directed by my medical team. It seemed clear to me however, that there would be an inevitable dead-end at some point in my future if I didn’t find a way to change it.


Lacking other options, I began researching natural and unconventional remedies hoping that I could find something that would help my situation. This came with its own peril by adding an extra layer of risk though. In 2010, part of a metal implant broke through the skin within the same area, and for a variety of reasons it could not be fixed. So, if I chose the wrong alternative remedy to experiment with, it was possible that I could inadvertently trigger a critical blood or bone infection to occur instead.


To make a long story short, I did eventually locate a remedy that has completely and dramatically decreased my chronic sinusitis by preventing the recurrence of infection without requiring the use of antibiotics. Moreover, no infections have occurred where the implant has broken through the skin either, which is a good indication of its safety. As it currently stands, I have not had any infections since I began doing this each day since January 2017, which is the longest stretch of time that I have not required the use of antibiotics to address an infection since my initial injury in 1994.


Since I am not a medical professional, I can only speak personally about my own situation and experiences, and have documented the steps that I took to solve my own condition of chronic sinusitis infections without the use of antibiotics. Possibly this information will be useful to others as well.


Sinus Biology


It was important for me to first understand how the biological pieces fit together.


Sinus Anatomy: “The pink membranes lining the sinuses make mucus that is cleared out of the sinus cavities and drains into the nasal passage. The right and left nasal passages are separated in the middle by a vertical plate of cartilage and bone called the nasal septum. The sidewall of each nasal passage is lined by three ridges of tissue, and each of these is called a turbinate or concha. Specifically they are designated as inferior, middle, or superior depending on whether one is referring to the lower, middle, or upper structure.” “Most of the sinuses drain from underneath the middle turbinate, into a region called the osteomeatal complex. When air flows through the nasal passage on each side, it streams through the crevices between the nasal septum and these turbinates. Both airflow and mucus ends up in a part of the throat called the nasopharynx (the very back of the nose, where it meets the rest of the mouth and throat). Air is then breathed into the windpipe and lungs, while the mucus is swallowed.” “Tear duct (called the nasolacrimal duct): drains tears from the inside corner of the eye into the nasal cavity. Eustachian tube: this is the tube responsible for clearing air pressure in the ears; it opens into the back of the sidewall of the nasopharynx.” (American Rhinologic Society) [6]


Chronic Infections


It was equally important for me to understand how chronic sinus infections generally occur.


Sinusitis – In-Depth Report: “Healthy sinuses are sterile and contain no bacteria. (The nasal passage, on the other hand, normally contains many bacteria.)” “The Disease Process. Sinusitis is an infection that occurs if obstruction or congestion leads to bacterial growth in the paranasal sinuses. Among the many causes of such obstruction or congestion are the common cold, allergies, certain medical conditions, abnormalities in the nasal passage, and change in atmosphere. In any of these cases, sinusitis can develop as follows: (1) Mucus drainage and airflow are blocked. (2) Secretions build up, encouraging the growth of certain bacteria. (3) The resulting infection, swelling, and inflammation create further blockage, which may cause the sinuses to close up completely.” (NY Times Health) [7]


I also learned that these Secretions are called ‘biofilms’, and they play a critical role in the development of chronic sinus infections.


The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections: “Acute infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have been studied extensively for well over 100 years. These infections killed millions of people in previous centuries, but they have been combated effectively by the development of modern vaccines, antibiotics and infection control measures. Most research into bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but these diseases have now been supplemented by a new category of chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilm infections, such as pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients, chronic wounds, chronic otitis media and implant- and catheter-associated infections, affect millions of people in the developed world each year and many deaths occur as a consequence.” “The important hallmarks of chronic biofilm-based infections are extreme resistance to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents, and an extreme capacity for evading the host defenses.” (PubMed – NCBI, US National Library of Medicine) [8]


General Plan


Since these details fit my situation, I believed the following plan should prevent the cycle from continuing without the need of antibiotics.


  • (1) Break down the biofilm that is present in the area.
  • (2) Eradicate any harmful bacteria exposed in the area.
  • (3) Repeat on a daily schedule to prevent biofilm or bacteria from achieving critical mass.


Baby Shampoo


After reading further about biofilms, I learned that it was already proven through experimental medical studies that common baby shampoo rinsing was an effective method for breaking down biofilms within sinuses.


New ways to flush out sinus infections: “The concept behind baby shampoo irrigation is cleansing the naval cavity with a surfactant. By doing this, the biofilms, or oily layers that bad bacteria create to protect itself from irrigation, are broken down.” (Baylor College of Medicine | Houston, Texas) [9]


It seemed logical that choosing a baby shampoo product with the least amount of synthetic chemicals and the most amount of natural ingredients possible would likely be the safest to use for this purpose, so I settled on a product called Baby Bee Shampoo & Wash (by Burt’s Bees) [10].


Garlic Extract


As it turns out, there are quite a few natural herbs that include antibacterial properties, but garlic is one of the strongest, and it effectively kills microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses while at the same time strengthening the immune system. Moreover, this has been proven by modern scientific studies many times.


Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic.: “Allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has a variety of antimicrobial activities. Allicin in its pure form was found to exhibit i) antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant enterotoxicogenic strains of Escherichia coli; ii) antifungal activity, particularly against Candida albicans; iii) antiparasitic activity, including some major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia; and iv) antiviral activity. The main antimicrobial effect of allicin is due to its chemical reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes, e.g. alcohol dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase, and RNA polymerase, which can affect essential metabolism of cysteine proteinase activity involved in the virulence of E. histolytica.” (PubMed – NCBI, US National Library of Medicine) [11]


Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic: “People learned that by distillation with water vapor, garlic yields etheric oil with its characteristic sharp smell. The examination of the chemical content of that oil commenced in 1844. In 1892 and later, it was confirmed that garlic consists of several aliphatic unsaturated sulfur compounds. As late as in 1944, the oily, colorless, unstable substance called allicin was isolated from garlic by Cavallito and Bailey. Later it was established that allicin has strong bactericide power. Even in dilution 1 : 85000 to 1 : 250000, allicin showed antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.” “The action of garlic is manifold. Because of allicin and other sulfur compounds, garlic has antibiotic, antibacterial and antimycotic action, which has been testified by in vitro studies.” (PubMed – NCBI, US National Library of Medicine) [12]


There are many commercial products that include garlic extract, but I wanted to make sure I chose one that included only garlic extract in its most concentrated form, possessed all these antibacterial and antiviral properties, and could be easily dissolved into water. I chose Allicidin (by Premier Research Labs) [13], which fulfilled all these requirements.


Sinus Rinse


So, my plan was to first apply the baby shampoo rinse to break down the biofilm, then follow with a diluted garlic extract rinse to eradicate the buildup of pathogens, then follow with a general rinse to wash things out afterwards, and perform this ritual once each day to see what happened.


For the nasal rinse procedure, I chose a product called NeilMed Sinus Rinse Kit [14], which is accompanied by rinse packets that consist of a combination of salt and baking soda. This small combination of salt and baking soda when mixed into the water prevents the burning sensation that occurs when water is injected into the back of the nasal passages, which makes the experience more comfortable.


Materials and Quantities


  • One NeilMed squeeze bottle.
  • One half teaspoon Burt’s Bees Baby Shampoo.
  • One Allicidin garlic capsule.
  • Two or Three sinus rinse packets depending.
  • Lukewarm filtered water.


Rinse Directions


  • (1) Add 1/2 teaspoon baby shampoo to water in a cup, plus 1 sinus rinse packet if desired to prevent slight burning when applied, then mix until slightly sudsy.
  • (2) Add solution to the squeeze bottle and apply as directed for use until the bottle is empty, then wash the soap solution out of the bottle and cup when finished until both are clean.
  • (3) Open and empty the contents of 1 Allicidin garlic capsule into the cup, plus 1 sinus rinse packet, plus water, then mix until all particles are dissolved. (Don’t include the empty garlic capsule in the solution.)
  • (4) Add new solution to the squeeze bottle and apply as directed for use until the bottle is empty.
  • (5) Open 1 sinus rinse packet into empty cup plus water, then mix until all particles are dissolved.
  • (6) Add new solution to the squeeze bottle and apply as directed for use until the bottle is empty.


Concluding Remarks


The remedy worked and continues to do so. The addition of the garlic extract rinse after the baby shampoo rinse appears to increase the process of breaking down the biofilm as well, and the once daily repetition has successfully prevented the accumulation of dangerous pathogens so that no infections have occurred since the end of 2016 when I began doing this. As I mentioned before, this is the longest stretch of time that I have not required the use of antibiotics to address an infection since my injury in 1994, despite the exposed metal from an implant that has remained the same since 2010.


I have attempted many times to locate recommendations from modern medical professionals that discuss how to accomplish the same thing for those suffering from chronic sinusitis, with limited success. Though I have found some recommendations for one or the other individually, I found none that specifically addressed the task of nullifying both biofilm and pathogens simultaneously for greatest effect. In contrast, the most common treatment according to medical professionals is still the use of antibiotics as a preventative measure. This seems counterproductive to my situation and as a global policy because the ever-increasing resistance to antibiotics is fast becoming a global risk, and the populations where preventative treatment is applicable is huge.


It is also greatly disturbing that antibiotics are so freely used in farming, when the arguments to justify this are so clearly weak and based on falsehoods. Hopefully this will be addressed before antibiotics are rendered completely ineffective in fighting common diseases as a result. Time will tell. Unfortunately, in many cases from what I’ve observed, it appears that business interests are commonly given higher regard than the future security of humanity by those in power.





Complex Cooking Is Now Accessible for the Blind Using Bluetooth

Typically I’m well known for ripping products apart, but not really for endorsing a product due to the amazing level of its accessibility. Since this subject is so important though, I thought this would be a needed exception. It’s called the Bluetooth Enabled Instant Pot.


First, food is one of those things that is so obviously, part of our daily existence that we overlook certain aspects of it regularly. We need it to survive, therefore cooking is an activity that is a critical part of our lives in one way or another. This also presents important challenges for people with disabilities.


For the last twenty years I’ve avoided cooking for these reasons. Due to the severity of my injuries when I was 14, I didn’t just lose my sight, but I also lost my sense of smell, and much of my ability to distinguish tastes. So in regard to cooking, I couldn’t see when food was cooking or where it was located, I couldn’t smell when it began to burn, and I couldn’t reliably taste when it was supposed to be done cooking. Also, cooking can be physically dangerous, and the idea of damaging my hands which I need for sight and to remain employed seemed like another risk that detracted from its appeal.


So, while at the 2017 CSUN Conference in March, a friend was telling my wife and I about this kitchen appliance she really liked since it was a combination crockpot and pressure cooker that could be programmed.


This last part perked my interest a bit, ‘programmed’ sounded pretty cool to me, though the pressure cooker not so much. I’ve been uneasy about having a pressure cooker in our house for years. Years ago, we had one explode in our kitchen with such force that it bent the lid like a fortune cookie and with such violence that it embedded pieces of meat in the wall and ceiling while causing other bits to ricochet around the corners into other rooms. The blast shook the house like a bomb exploded. My wife was standing 2 feet away from it when it went off, but not a drop of it touched her, which I still think is a miracle. Nevertheless, I have never trusted pressure cookers since then.


So, after we got back we did a bit of research and learned some interesting details about this weird gadget. First it has ten built in redundant safety features that make it impossible to explode in the same manner as our last one did, and the other part was that it was Bluetooth enabled so it could be controlled through an iPhone app. That really got my attention. For years, I’ve been saying that general household appliances don’t need to be custom built with text-to-speech features if they include a Bluetooth or Wi-Fi API that can be tapped into using an app on a mobile device like an iPhone, because VoiceOver is already accessible on these devices already. So, we took the plunge and ordered one on Amazon.


The setup for this thing is incredibly easy. First I installed the app on my iPhone, then plugged in the pot. Then I tapped the ‘Pot Unknown’ button then ‘Add’ within the app to pair the devices, which then prompts you to hold down the Adjust button on the cooker for three seconds until the devices finish pairing. This button on the cooker is the second button up from the bottom right of the display panel. The cooker will beep when the paring completes.


When the lid is placed into the grooves of the pot, a series of tones are played to notify you that the lid is placed correctly, then you turn the lid clockwise to lock it into place, at which point another series of tones is played to let you know that it is locked in place correctly. This is very helpful, especially if you are blind.


Then I opened the app and started playing with it. This is the incredible part, everything about the cooker is accessible through the app! Everything from setting it to use the slow cooker or the pressure cooker, whether you choose cooking options for the type of food in the cooker such as steaming, sautéing, and so on, the pressure levels, the timing options, as well as programming schedules for more complex recipes. As it cooks the current temperature is automatically updated, as is the current pressure level within the pot, as well as the timing countdown and other stats associated with the settings. When the cooking completes the cooker makes a series of beeps to let you know that it is finished and just needs to cool off, and the app shows what the temperature and pressure levels are as it does this so you know not to open it too soon, which isn’t possible anyway because the lid locks to prevent accidental opening when the pressure is too high. It will even adjust the cooking processes automatically to account for your current elevation using the GPS on your phone, how cool is that?!


Cooking with this thing feels just like programming to me, which is totally awesome and appeals to the way my brain works. All I need do is set up the pieces and ingredients according to the recipe, put them in as directed, program the settings as indicated in the recipe then tap the Start button to begin the cooking process. Then it’s just a matter of letting the cooker do its own thing until it tells me it’s done.


I started with something simple, steamed potatoes, which sounds stupid but I’ve never done this before. You simply add some seasoning if you wish like a couple of hot peppers or spices for seasoning, put the grate into the pot over this, add water up to where the grate begins, pile in washed and scrubbed potatoes, put on and lock the lid, then open the iPhone app and tap the Steam button, set the duration for 10 minutes for small potatoes or 13 if larger ones, leave the pressure set for High, set mode to Normal, then tap the Start button. That’s it, they turned out perfectly!


I’ve successfully done other things too, and plan to do a lot more experimentation from now on, but I wanted to publish this in case this information is helpful to others. Complex cooking really is now accessible to the blind, which I can personally attest to.


One last important detail for those who are non-sighted, when the lid is closed and the display panel is facing you, you will notice a wiggly spout-like thingy on the lid directly opposite from you. This is the pressure release valve. So, when you want to use the pressure cooker, you will need to push the valve away from you so it is pointing to the left, which will close the valve so that pressure can build up for the cooking process. When using the slow cooker however, you need to turn the valve so that the spout is pointing towards the handle in the center of the lid, which will keep the valve open so pressure cannot build up in the cooker.


Below is a collection of the sites I’ve been using to get recipe ideas for use with the Bluetooth Enabled Instant Pot, though there are lots of others when Googling “Instant Pot Recipes”.



In the future, as I get better at documenting accessible recipes, I’ll publish these on the blog at HackPoets.WordPress.com if anyone is interested.


Happy cooking,


[Letter to the President] The Great Depression and today’s working class, poor, disabled, elderly, and retired populations


From: Bryan Garaventa [mailto:bryan.garaventa@whatsock.com] Sent: Monday, December 05, 2016 2:35 AM To: ‘president@whitehouse.gov’ <president@whitehouse.gov>; ‘comments@whitehouse.gov’ <comments@whitehouse.gov> Subject: The Great Depression and today’s working class, poor, disabled, elderly, and retired populations


Dear President Obama,


All throughout the lead up to the election of Donald Trump, the overriding message that was pushed constantly and without fail was that this was all being done for the benefit of the working class, the poor, the disabled, the elderly, the under-represented amongst us. He was only doing this for the people, to “take our country back” from the obviously corrupt politicians, to stick it to the establishment, to “make America great again”. This would restore lost jobs, would introduce more competitive and advantageous wages, would give more control to these millions in regard to achieving long-term personal savings and better qualities of life for all.


Unfortunately the complete opposite appears to be true, which is becoming much clearer.


““The Trump tax plan is heavily, heavily, skewed to the most wealthy, who will receive huge savings,” said Lily Batchelder, a law professor and tax expert at New York University. “At the same time, millions of low-income families – particularly single-parent households – will face an increase.””

“Minority families are set to suffer disproportionately from the tax increases, according to Batchelder. With 32% of African American families facing a tax increase compared with 19% of whites, this is mostly due to African American families being more likely to share the burden of childcare within the family and hence not benefit as much from Trump childcare credits. Batchelder said the effective tax increase for many millions of families would run into the thousands.”

“While the poor will face tax increases, the Tax Policy Center research said the rich would receive big tax cuts that get even bigger as you work up the income scale. The top 20% of earners would receive an average annual tax cut of $16,660 compared with an overall average cut of $2,940.”

“The richest 1% will collect 47% of all the tax cuts – an average saving of $214,000.”

“Gardner said that under Trump, America will become even more divided between the rich and poor. “America is already very unequal, and his proposals would make income inequality a lot worse,” Gardner said.”

Trump’s tax plan: massive cuts for the 1% will usher ‘era of dynastic wealth’ | US news | The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/23/trump-tax-plan-cuts-wealthy-low-income-inequality


Equally important, this doesn’t just negatively impact the incomes for the majority of the United States population, but it also directly affects the infrastructure and overall economy for the country.


“But then there are the tax cuts. In the simplest math of fiscal policy, lower taxes plus more spending equal higher budget deficits. Mr. Trump resorted to vague hand-waving about any spending cuts to offset those changes, promising instead that faster growth would prevent the deficit from rising.”

“Most hardheaded analysis – including from those sympathetic ideologically – suggests this is wrong. The conservative-leaning Tax Foundation, for example, estimates that Mr. Trump’s tax plan would reduce federal revenue by about $12 trillion over the next decade, and faster growth would offset only about $2 trillion of that.”

The Trump Administration Could Test Whether Deficits Help the Economy – The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/10/upshot/the-trump-administration-could-test-whether-deficits-help-the-economy.html


Such policies would divert billions into the personal and business bank accounts of the top 1% of wealthiest individuals and out of the general circulation for the majority of the country, and would also defund the majority of public services to those in need across all sectors such as finance, food, and healthcare services. This will negatively affect all people such as the unemployed, plus those on fixed incomes such as the disabled, the elderly, and all those on fixed retirement incomes; who will see needed services disappear, costs rise, and wages decrease.


The following illustrates the income divide between the rich and poor that currently exists in American society.


“The average American believes that the richest fifth own 59% of the wealth and that the bottom 40% own 9%. The reality  is strikingly different. The top 20% of US households own more than 84% of the wealth, and the bottom 40% combine for a paltry 0.3%. The Walton family, for example, has more wealth than 42% of American families combined.”

Economic Inequality: It’s Far Worse Than You Think – Scientific American https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/economic-inequality-it-s-far-worse-than-you-think/


To rephrase this for clarity, there are at present approximately 323,995,528 people in the United States, and the Walton family alone owns more wealth in the United States than the combined savings of 136,078,121 people within this population.


The policies of Donald Trump and the GOP are guaranteed to tilt this balance even further so that even more of the country’s wealth is diverted into the ownership of the super-rich, thus removing it from circulation within the remainder of the country for critical services that keep our country running.


The idea being pushed by Donald Trump and the GOP that this is preferable because wealth can then trickle down as needed into society is completely false. Wealthy individuals don’t ever decide to fund police departments to keep the peace, to fund public schools for better education across the country, to fund maintenance for the electric grid for all of our technologies, to fund healthcare facilities for those in need, to fund new research into medical treatments and technological advancements, nor any of the other countless projects that require Federal and State funding to achieve. 99% of wealthy individuals horde their wealth and will not give it away just because they have it.


Another critical aspect of what is being aggressively pushed by the GOP is widespread deregulation across all private sectors to make it easier for businesses to make additional corporate profits at the expense of the people.


The following illustrates what is planned just for the banking system.


Donald Trump states: “One of the keys to unlocking growth is scaling back years of disastrous regulations unilaterally imposed by our out-of-control bureaucracy. Regulations have grown into a massive, job-killing industry – and the regulation industry is one business I will put an end to.” “I’ve proposed a moratorium on new federal regulations that are not compelled by Congress or public safety, and I will eliminate all needless and job-killing regulations now on the books.”

“The House Republican proposal also features a clever idea to help ensure that Trump’s regulatory freeze could outlast his term in office. It does this by essentially inverting the normal order of operations in the American regulatory process.”

Donald Trump’s administration is going to be a bonanza for bankers – Vox http://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2016/11/9/13573294/donald-trump-financial-regulation


“President-elect Trump said throughout his campaign he would oppose financial regulations and in May said he would repeal the 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform law, which was passed in the wake of the financial crisis and empowered federal regulatory agencies to restrict banks’ ability to make risky investments.”

“Hufeld also warned that a loosening or scrapping of existing laws would lead to a new financial crisis.”

German watchdog warns against financial deregulation after Trump win | Reuters http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-germany-banks-idUSKBN1361G2


Additionally, with his pick to lead the EPA, Donald Trump has already made it clear that corporate profits are more important than climate change research and environmental protection policy.


Interesting enough, all of these things were done once before when Republicans held the majority in both the House and Senate with a Republican president. This was in the 1920’s, just before the total collapse of the United States economy during the Great Depression.


“Throughout the 1920s, Congress was focused on slashing taxes on the wealthy and eliminating business regulations, arguing that a free market could govern itself and that a rising tide would lift all boats.”

“The results were devastating: Wall Street ran amuck, resulting in the 1929 stock market crash.  Wealth became highly concentrated at the top, leaving everyday consumers with too few resources to fuel a meaningful post-crash recovery.  Industrial pollution began accelerating, setting the stage for an era of smog and even flammable rivers.”

Radical Deregulation Won’t Bring Real Growth | The Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-conyers/radical-deregulation-wont_b_6481308.html


Nor have these connections been lost on economic forecasters, who are making plans and advising followers to prepare for the worst.


““Housing prices will start to fall by as much as 40% over several years… unemployment will surge… many state and municipal governments will be forced into default…and the federal deficit will balloon to as high as $1.5 to $2 trillion,” warns Dent.”

“We are approaching what he terms “The Greater Depression”, and the coming months look bleak: “The recession is NOT over yet. $100 trillion of the $225 trillion in loans, bonds and stocks across the world…will simply disappear.””

Critical Warning from Rogue Economist Harry Dent: “This is Just the Beginning of a Nightmare Scenario as Dow Crashes to 6,000” | Economy and Markets http://economyandmarkets.com/exclusives/critical-warning-from-rogue-economist-harry-dent-this-is-just-the-beginning-of-a-nightmare-scenario-as-dow-crashes-to-6000-2/


Sadly enough, it has become painfully clear that Donald Trump and the GOP are no friends to the general working class, the unemployed, the disabled, the elderly, fixed income retirees, nor to the future health and wellbeing of our children.


Moreover, it has also become painfully clear that those in the GOP who have the power to build our country instead of break it, will not hear, will not see, will not listen; they refuse to understand, and they refuse to care.


“For me, the really concerning aspect of this is that now, more than at any time in our history, our species needs to work together. We face awesome environmental challenges: climate change, food production, overpopulation, the decimation of other species, epidemic disease, acidification of the oceans.”

“Together, they are a reminder that we are at the most dangerous moment in the development of humanity. We now have the technology to destroy the planet on which we live, but have not yet developed the ability to escape it.”

“To do that, we need to break down, not build up, barriers within and between nations. If we are to stand a chance of doing that, the world’s leaders need to acknowledge that they have failed and are failing the many. With resources increasingly concentrated in the hands of a few, we are going to have to learn to share far more than at present.”

This is the most dangerous time for our planet | Stephen Hawking | Opinion | The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/dec/01/stephen-hawking-dangerous-time-planet-inequality



Bryan Garaventa

Founder of WhatSock, Accessibility Fellow at SSB, Research Developer (W3C ARIA WG; ISOC; FRSA)

Fascism and Trump: The Most Corrupt Election in American History


I wrote this because I have grave concerns regarding the recent rise of Fascism in our society, and to express concerns not just for the future Democracy of America but also for that of Europe.


It’s become increasingly clear that these sentiments are growing, and as with the recent election of Donald Trump, the demographic of allied nations is also at play where the Americas are now increasingly leaning towards Russia, or more accurately being pushed that way. This is deeply worrying, because similar radical sentiment in Europe is using this as a model to emulate, specifically France, Slovakia, amongst others.


My fear is that Fascism is regaining a foothold in our societies, and the inevitable results of where this will lead us, as history has shown.


I wrote the below article in the hope that it will shed some light on the dangers of this, and to expose corruptions in our own electoral system that appear to be under-reported in the mainstream media. This by itself is deeply concerning.


Especially that, according to the Dworkin Report, Donald Trump provably has registered over 250 businesses in Russia, and has travelled there on multiple occasions, but nobody seems to be focusing on this as relevant even though it directly effects all trade negotiations and conflicts of interest; not to mention all lies by Trump to the contrary.


The path where this is leading us is quite clear, and the Electoral College must be duty-bound to consider the consequences of this information, or threaten the future of our Democracy.


Kind regards,

Bryan Garaventa (FRSA)


Fascism and Trump: The Most Corrupt Election in American History


This election cycle has been so contentious, so divisive, so filled with misinformation that most people in our country voted out of a sense of disgust and not in support of our country as a whole.


So regarding our main internal issues including economic disparities between the rich and the poor, fears of terrorists invading the country, illegal migrants taking away jobs and using free services and causing problems, industries having trouble maintaining work in a global economy, rising violence in our country between racial divides, amongst others, these are all valid concerns and issues that our country needs to work on and correct.


Taking a step back however, this election itself has been plagued with such a monumental level of corruption that its like has literally never been seen before in the history of American politics.


First we were inundated with hate propaganda that has been so liberally spread across all social media sites for so long that millions of people didn’t even know what the truth actually was any longer.


“Rather than connecting people – as Facebook’s euphoric mission statement claims – the bitter polarization of the social network over the last eighteen months suggests Facebook is actually doing more to divide the world.”

Facebook’s failure: did fake news and polarized politics get Trump elected? | Technology | The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/10/facebook-fake-news-election-conspiracy-theories


At the same time we received so many mixed messages from Trump that we still don’t know what the truth actually is:


“The Republican nominee changes his mind so frequently and so dramatically that a compilation of his current policies would not tell the whole story, nor would it be up to date for very long — he once offered up three different views on abortion in eight hours. By mixing facts with exaggerations and outright falsehoods while simultaneously refusing to offer specifics – insisting that unpredictability is an advantage he’ll use to cut better deals – Trump and the Republican Party that’s nominated him are putting forward the most elusive presidential platform in modern history.”

A Full List of Donald Trump’s Rapidly Changing Policy Positions – NBC News: http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/full-list-donald-trump-s-rapidly-changing-policy-positions-n547801


Also, the Democratic campaign was deliberately targeted by WikiLeaks by releasing key information designed to cripple her chances of winning the election that was provably traced to Russia as the provider.


“U.S. intelligence officials concluded weeks ago that the Russian government was conducting or orchestrating cyber attacks against the Democratic National Committee and the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, possibly to disrupt or discredit the election, in which Democrat Hillary Clinton faces Republican Donald Trump.”

U.S. formally accuses Russian hackers of political cyber attacks | Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-cyber-russia-idUSKCN12729B


Meanwhile, known leaders from Dictatorships and radical politicians around the world publically endorsed Donald Trump as the best person to run America’s Democracy, including Vladimir Putin, Geert Wilders, Matteo Salvini, Kim Jong Un, Nigel Farage, Marine Le Pen, Viktor Orban, and Robert Mugabe.

Which world leaders support Donald Trump? – Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/which-world-leaders-support-trump-2016-7/#robert-mugabe-8


“There are some common themes here. The less committed a U.S. ally is to liberal democracy, and the more hostile to immigrants, the more likely its government is to favor Trump. Allies uncomfortable with subtlety in U.S. diplomacy – whether it is support for human rights in pro-U.S. dictatorships, or a Palestinian state, or outreach to Iran – tend to see Trump as refreshingly one-sided.”

The foreign leaders who are rooting for Trump – The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/global-opinions/the-foreign-leaders-who-are-rooting-for-trump/2016/10/30/fc9aed02-9c58-11e6-9980-50913d68eacb_story.html


Whenever Trump was pressed about his ties to such political leaders, he denied them while at the same time praising them as being good leaders.


“A key figure at the Republican national convention where Donald Trump was nominated for president has strong business ties with Ukraine, the Guardian has learned.”

“The party platform, written at the convention in Cleveland last week, removed references to arming Ukraine in its fight against pro-Russia rebels, who have received material support from the Kremlin.”

“The coordinator of the Washington diplomatic corps for the Republicans in Cleveland was Frank Mermoud, a former state department official involved in business ventures in Ukraine via Cub Energy, a Black Sea-focused oil and gas company of which he is a director. He is also on the board of the US Ukraine Business Council.”

“Mermoud has longstanding ties to Trump’s campaign chairman, Paul Manafort, who in 2010 helped pro-Russia Viktor Yanukovych refashion his image and win a presidential election in Ukraine. Manafort was brought in earlier this year to oversee the convention operations and its staffing.”

Donald Trump and Russia: a web that grows more tangled all the time | US news | The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jul/30/donald-trump-paul-manafort-ukraine-russia-putin-ties


“Suspicion is mounting about Donald Trump’s ties to Russian officials and business interests, as well as possible links between his campaign and the Russian hacking of U.S. political organizations. But GOP leaders have refused to support efforts by Democrats to investigate any possible Trump-Russia connections, which have been raised in news reports and closed-door intelligence briefings. And without their support, Democrats, as the minority in both chambers of Congress, cannot issue subpoenas to potential witnesses and have less leverage to probe Trump.”

“Trump has made no secret of his affection for Russian President Vladimir Putin and came to his defense in the first presidential debate this week when he dismissed the assertion that Russian government hackers were behind intrusions at the Democratic National Committee. Although it’s practically the consensus of the U.S. intelligence community that the Kremlin is seeking to undermine the presidential election through cyberattacks and leaks, Trump said, “I mean, it could be Russia, but it could also be China, it could also be lots of other people. It also could be somebody sitting on their bed who weighs 400 pounds, OK?””

GOP Blocks Probes Into Trump-Russia Ties – The Daily Beast: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/09/30/gop-blocks-probes-into-trump-russia-ties.html


“The Republican presidential nominee told the forum the Russian president “has been a leader far more than our president [Obama] has been”.”

Trump says Putin ‘a leader far more than our president’ – BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2016-37303057


“The campaign denied a Slate report that said activity on an organization server indicated ‘sustained relationship’ with Russia’s largest private commercial bank”

Trump campaign denies report of Trump Organization tie to Russian bank | US news | The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/oct/31/trump-organization-server-russia-bank-slate-report


Despite all of these negative signs, we are seeing the fascist policy proposals now emerging, which will plague our country and world relations for many years if they come to be enacted.


One such is the Un-American Activities Committee:


“Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich is calling for the creation of a new House Committee on Un-American Activities, invoking the infamous “Red Scare”-era congressional body as a blueprint for weeding out American ISIS adherents and sympathizers.”

Newt Gingrich wants new House Un-American Activities Committee – CNNPolitics.com: http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/14/politics/newt-gingrich-house-un-american-activities-committee/index.html



“He was a short-lister for Donald Trump’s vice president. He was one of the mogul’s few defenders among the Republican Party’s elder statesmen. So what will be Newt Gingrich’s reward for his loyalty? We’re about to find out.”

“I said I want to be the senior planner for the entire federal government, and I want a letter from you that says Newt Gingrich is authorized to go to any program in any department, examine it and report directly to the president,” Gingrich said Tuesday at a reception sponsored by the law firm Dentons.”

What role will Newt Gingrich have in a Donald Trump administration? | Political Insider blog: http://politics.blog.ajc.com/2016/11/09/what-role-will-newt-gingrich-have-in-a-trump-administration/


Another is in regard to climate change policy and the future welfare of our world for generations to come:


“President-elect Trump has selected Myron Ebell, who disputes the scientific consensus around anthropogenic global warming, to lead the EPA transition team.”

“Ebell openly declares himself to be a climate change skeptic who disputes the severity of human activity on Earth’s climate. On this point, Ebell has been extremely consistent: He  argues  that anthropogenic global warming, if it happens at all, is a minor issue that has been usurped by liberals to expand the federal government. He has stated in many different venues that he intends to dismantle the scientific consensus around anthropogenic global warming”

Trump Taps Outspoken Climate Denier To Oversee EPA Transition Team : snopes.com: http://www.snopes.com/trump-taps-outspoken-climate-denier-to-oversee-epa-transition-team/


The global damage that a Trump presidency can and will do is unimaginable.


“And, in the first test of Trump’s willingness to rebuild bridges with Russia, Putin’s spokesman suggested that President-elect Donald Trump should begin rebuilding the U.S.-Kremlin relationship by urging NATO to withdraw forces from the Russian border.  Dmitry Peskov told the Associated Press that such a move  “would lead to a kind of detente in Europe.” Trump repeatedly praised Putin during his campaign and suggested the U.S. abandon its commitment to the NATO alliance.”

NATO Panics As Putin Urges Trump To Force Alliance Withdrawal From Russian Border | Zero Hedge: http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-11-12/


So now, like the tip of an iceberg just emerging, we see that Trump has been blatantly lying about his ties to Russia all throughout his campaign.


“The Obama administration is reviewing the Democratic Coalition’s investigative report highlighting ten “clear links” that the FBI failed to investigate about our President-elect’s business ties to Russia and to the regime of dictator Vladimir Putin’s regime.”

“The Dworkin Report shows that Donald Trump has incorporated almost  250 registered businesses  in Russia.”

“Additionally, the evidence shows that Trump has traveled to Russia dating back to 1987, before the end of the Soviet Union.”

“In particular, a visit in 2010 included a tour of St. Petersburg’s Hermitage Museum led by a Russian government official of sufficient ranking, that he earned a personal photo and award from Vladimir Putin earlier this year.”

“Since Tuesday night, Putin’s regime has publicly admitted to having a hand in the Wikileaks deluge of emails  during the election.”

“Russian government officials told the New York Times that they had  direct contact with Trump’s closest allies  this week, after polls closed.”

Obama Is Now Looking Into Trump’s Ties To Russia That FBI Ignored: http://occupydemocrats.com/2016/11/11/obama-now-looking-trumps-ties-russia-fbi-ignored/


As such, the 2016 election has been the most corrupt in the history of American politics, and is probably the most brilliant use of Social Engineering by one Dictatorship country to completely undermine and subvert the Democracy of another.


“First of all, there are the kinds of themes Trump uses. The use of ethnic stereotypes and exploitation of fear of foreigners is directly out of a fascist’s recipe book. “Making the country great again” sounds exactly like the fascist movements. Concern about national decline, that was one of the most prominent emotional states evoked in fascist discourse, and Trump is using that full-blast, quite illegitimately, because the country isn’t in serious decline, but he’s able to persuade them that it is. That is a fascist stroke. An aggressive foreign policy to arrest the supposed decline. That’s another one. Then, there’s a second level, which is a level of style and technique. He even looks like Mussolini in the way he sticks his lower jaw out, and also the bluster, the skill at sensing the mood of the crowd, the skillful use of media.”

“I read an absolutely astonishing account of Trump arriving for a political speech, somewhere out West I think, and his audience was gathered in an airplane hangar, and he landed his plane at the field and taxied up to the hangar and got out. That is exactly what they did in 1932 for Hitler’s first election victory. No one had ever seen a candidate arrive by plane before; it was absolutely dazzling, the impression given, the decisiveness of power, of authority, of modernity. I suppose it was accidental, but wow, that is an almost letter-perfect replay of a Hitler election tactic. And the capacity of Trump to enlist working-class voters against the left is exactly what Hitler and Mussolini were able to do. There are definitely echoes.”

Is Donald Trump a fascist? An expert on fascism weighs in: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/interrogation/2016/02/is_donald_trump_a_fascist_an_expert_on_fascism_weighs_in.html


“A “nation-state” used Wikileaks to influence the US election, the head of the NSA says”

“The head of the US’s National Security Agency said Nov. 15 that a “nation-state” consciously targeted presidential candidate Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign, in order to affect the US election.”

NSA chief on Wikileaks and the hacks affecting the US election: “a conscious effort by a nation-state” — Quartz: http://qz.com/838615/nsa-chief-on-wikileaks-and-the-hacks-affecting-the-us-election-a-conscious-effort-by-a-nation-state/


“French far-right party leader Marine Le Pen said on Wednesday that her election as president next year would form a trio of world leaders with U.S. President-elect Donald Trump and Russia’s Vladimir Putin that “would be good for world peace.””

“Anti-Europe and anti-immigration, the 48-year-old Le Pen was the only French political leader who backed Trump in the U.S. election.”

“Her National Front party has been buoyed by his victory and that of Britain’s vote to leave the European Union, hoping to ride a similar anti-establishment wave in France to victory in next year’s poll.”

“”If I am president, France would have good relations with Russia,” she said.”

“Le Pen says she would re-instate border-checks with France’s neighbors and hold a referendum to take the country out of the Eu.”

Le Pen says ‘world peace’ would gain from a Trump-Putin-Le Pen trio | Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-election-le-pen-idUSKBN13B230


“The ex-Breitbart executive, who serves as Trump’s chief strategist for the new administration, told The Hollywood Reporter that “darkness is good.” “Dick Cheney. Darth Vader. Satan. That’s power. It only helps us when they (liberals) get it wrong. When they’re blind to who we are and what we’re doing,” he said in an interview published Friday, his first outside of Breitbart since the election. Briebart News, which Bannon has been associated with since its start in 2007, has been vehemently pro-Trump throughout his presidential campaign, and is also known for pushing nationalist policy positions, as well as conspiracy theories, and has been criticized as being racist, sexist and anti-Semitic.”

Steve Bannon: ‘Darkness is good’ – CNNPolitics.com: http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/18/politics/steve-bannon-donald-trump-hollywood-reporter-interview/index.html



From HTML to ARIA Tabs, A Travelog

Tabs – a 3-step journey from HTML to ARIA

This article is an accompanyment to Danger! Testing Accessibility with real people

Here we take you through the steps of constructing the examples used in that article, paying particular attention to how we transform the functional html tabs with no screen reader semantics to a full-fledged tab implementation. We will make scenic stops along the way where we explain the importance of what we are adding. Photo opportunities are optional.

The basic Tabs without ARIA example is an online version of the halfway point of this journey, (after step 2), whilst tabs with ARIA example is the destination.

For a better understanding of ARIA, what it is and how to use it, we recommend giving The Accessibility Tree: A Training Guide for Advanced Web Development a spin. Then consult the ARIA authoring practices guide for advice on how to implement specific widgets, which has a very good entry for tabs.

Our goal is to make tabs on the web behave like tabs on the desktop. We’ll use some good old fashioned HTML as the basis, then enhance it as we go. In this exercise we create a tabbed form where a user provides contact information )home, work, or other). We don’t want to overload the user with unnecessary form fields, so we let them first choose the type of contact information they wish to provide so we can present only the form fields relevant to that information.

Step 1: The basic HTML

Here is the basic HTML code for our tabs example. (the CSS code is left out but is available in either of the online examples.

Note, due to formatting differences, section elements are used instead of div elements as seen within the live examples. Please use the live examples by saving them locally to run the code, since this will prevent any special character markup from clogging the works.


<h2>My preferred contact information</h2>
<ul id="tabs">
        <li><a id="homeTab" href="#home" class="tab selected">Home</a></li>
        <li><a id="workTab" href="#work" class="tab">Work</a></li>
        <li><a id="otherTab" href="#other" class="tab">Other</a></li>

<section id="home" class="tabcontent">
        <h3>Home contact information</h3>
        <p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>

<section id="work" class="tabcontent hidden">
        <h3>Work contact information</h3>
        <p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>

<section id="other" class="tabcontent hidden">
        <h3>Other Contact Information</h3>
        <p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>


Note how we use CSS

  • To make links visually look like tabs.
  • To visually indicate which tab is selected
  • To display tabpanel content
  • To hide inactive tabs.

The only CSS understood by assistive technologies is the hidden class.

Step 2: Add the desired keyboard functionality.

To all intents and purposes, ARIA is a screen reader only technology (though some speech recognition tools have limited support). People rely on the keyboard for many different reasons though, so getting the keyboard interaction in place is a fundamental next step.

Like tabs on the desktop, it should be possible to move focus onto the currently selected tab, cycle through the available tabs using the arrow keys, select one, then move focus from the selected tab to the panel of content that is currently displayed.

We use the tabindex attribute to handle keyboard focus. The currently selected tab has a tabindex of 0, making it focusable. The rest of the tabs have tabindex -1. If the html base element for a tab is natively focusable (such as a link( we don’t need to set tabindex=”0″ on the currently selected tab.

When the arrow key is pressed, we:

  • Make the newly selected tab focusable (adding tabindex of 0 or removing tabindex=”-1″ if the element is natively focusable.
  • Take the old tab out of focus order (by adding tabindex of -1).

This method is known as roving tab index and ensures that only the active tab is in the focus order.

Important notes on tab selection.

According to the ARIA 1.1 authoring practices guide, (that we’re working on at W3C), a tab may be selected when an arrow key moves focus to it or when the space and enter keys are pressed with focus on the tab. The difference depends on the interface and the way the content is rendered.

In either case, to ensure accessibility across devices and with various assistive technologies, onclick must be used as the trigger to select a tab, and not onfocus or any other key event. For example when an arrow key is used to select a tab, it should trigger the onclick handler for the tab that is to be selected. This ensures that a tab cannot be opened accidentally on touch screen devices, where onfocus is triggered automatically, and prevents the tabs from becoming unusable because a key press is required on a device that has no keyboard.

Moving focus to the start of a tabpanel as soon as a tab is selected is not something everyone will find helpful, especially if you decide not to implement the keyboard handling we mention above. What if someone selects the wrong tab, or decides the tab wasn’t the one they wanted? You’ve made an assumption about what that person wanted to do, and with rare exceptions we’re not fond of people making those sort of assumptions on our behalf.

You can view the JQuery code that handles the keyboard interaction on the “Tabs with ARIA” example page linked to above.

Yes, but what about the ARIA?

Once the basic interaction has been tested with mouse, keyboard and touch, it’s time to add some ARIA to enhance the experience for screen reader users.

Step 3: Add required ARIA roles.

Now let us add the required ARIA roles to our content.

  1. Add role=”tablist” to the <ul> container that holds all the tabs. This tells assistive technologies that a set of tabs is coming up and allows them to respond in the way most beneficial to the user. Screen readers, for instance can switch from browse mode into interactive or forms mode, which passes the keyboard events directly to the webpage instead of intercepting them.
  2. Add role=”tab” to each of the <a> elements that represent those tabs. This is what tells the screen reader to forget the HTML consists of a list of links, and instead tell the user it’s a set of tabs. Make sure to always add role=”tab” on the element that has the onclick Javascript event.
  3. Add role=”presentation” to each of the <li> elements. We need to use the <li> elements so the underlying HTML structure is usable on older devices (that don’t support ARIA), but the presentation role is what stops screen readers that do support ARIA from announcing the list items and enables them to calculate and announce the number of tabs in the tablist along with the relative position of the selected tab (e.g. “tab 2 of 3” for the work tab in our example.
  4. Add role=”tabpanel” to the <section> containers. This enables the screen reader to announce the beginning and the end of the visible tabpanel content.


<h2>My preferred contact information</h2>
<ul id="tabs" role=”tablist”>
        <li role=”presentation”><a id="homeTab" href="#home" class="tab selected" role=”tab”>Home</a></li>
        <li role=”presentation”><a id="workTab" href="#work" class="tab" tabindex="-1" role=”tab”>Work</a></li>
        <li role=”presentation”><a id="otherTab" href="#other" class="tab" tabindex="-1" role=”tab”>Other</a></li>

<section id="home" class="tabcontent" role=”tabpanel”>
        <h3>Home contact information</h3>
        <p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>

<section id="work" class="tabcontent hidden" role=”tabpanel”>
        <h3>Work contact information</h3>
        <p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>

<section id="other" class="tabcontent hidden" role=”tabpanel”>
        <h3>Other Contact Information</h3>
        <p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>


Step 4 (final step): Adding the ARIA attributes.

Finally, let’s add theARIA attributes that provide important context info for screen readers:

  1. Add the aria-controls attribute to each tab element. Its value is the id of the tabpanel whose display state is controlled by the tab. This attribute provides a programmatic context between the tab and its associated tabpanel. This programmatic context is important, and has already been turned into a keyboard shortcut (JawsKey-alt-m) using Jaws and Firefox. We expect more user agents to implement similar functionality.
  2. Add the attribute aria-labelledby to each tabpanel element. Its value is the ID of the tab that controls it. This is the reverse of the relationship explained in the above step and could also be used by assistive technologies, e.g. to provide a keyboard shortcut from the tabpanel to its associated tab.
  3. Add aria-selected=”true” to the currently selected tab and aria-selected=”false” to tabs that are not selected. Note how we used a CSS class to do the same visually? This is important, because screen reader user can see which tab is selected without switching to forms mode. Most screen readers automatically switch to forms or application mode when screen reader focus hits a tablist (to pass the keyboard keys directly to the page) , but advanced screen reader users often choose to override this behaviour.
  4. (optional) add aria-orientation to the tablist to indicate the direction (vertical or horizontal) of the visual tab layout. This can also indicate which set of arrow keys (up down, or left/right) to use for selecting tabs. Keep in mind that if the associated tabpanel has a lot of content, sighted keyboard only users may want to use the arrow keys up and down to scroll the page, so a horizontal set of tabs with right/left arrow keys might provide a better experience for that user group.


<h2>My preferred contact information</h2>
<ul role="tablist" id="tabs">
<li role="presentation"><a role="tab" aria-selected="true" aria-controls="home" id="homeTab" href="#home" class="tab selected">Home</a></li>
<li role="presentation"><a role="tab" aria-selected="false" aria-controls="work" id="workTab" href="#work" class="tab" tabindex="-1">Work</a></li>
<li role="presentation"><a role="tab" aria-selected="false" aria-controls="other" id="otherTab" href="#other" class="tab" tabindex="-1">Other</a></li>

<section role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="homeTab" id="home" class="tabcontent">
<h3>Home contact information</h3>
<p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>

<section role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="workTab" id="work" class="tabcontent hidden">
<h3>Work contact information</h3>
<p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>

<section role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="otherTab" id="other" class="tabcontent hidden">
<h3>Other Contact Information</h3>
<p>Lots of input fields that do not matter for the purposes of demonstrating tabs.</p>


And we have arrived at our destination, “tab widget city”. A couple of years ago we would have said that the place is a bit of a mess, with inconsistent implementation and assistive technology support making it unreliable and confusing for the user. Today we can confidently say it is a more accessible place with the ARIA markup. But there is still room for improvements, both in terms of the authoring consistency and how assistive technologies take advantage of that markup.

Accessibility requires a lot of players to do their part but without the necessary semantic information that ARIA provides we never give user agents a chance to create a better world for those who need to access web content in an alternative and creative fashion.

Also, don’t forget that you can use Visual ARIA to visually display ARIA usage during development to aid in this process.

Co-authors: Birkir Gunnarsson from Deque Systems, Bryan Garaventa from SSB BART Group, Lèonie Watson from The Paciello Group (TPG), and Matt King from Facebook.


Reflections in Jagged Chrome

Running my thumb along the edge, the points sharp by touch;
my thoughts turn inward, wisps of memory for the soul to dredge;
the splintering of reality at dusk.


Stark mountains there, torn metal thrusting into the sky;
forever tracing the shadows edge;
awry, an epoch dwelling on the terminator between light and dark.


Jagged peaks still sharp enough to cut;
blood trickling down to streams and rivers,
pooling in valleys in times of flood.


Reflections there, from the past,
liquid in metal refracted in light,
glare from a thousand suns beating down;
smear of a billion stars in the ink of night;
haunting beauty of a smile, now lost forever in time;
bone white shard of a sickle moon shredding clouds in flight;
the softness in her eyes, gazing back into mine.



(Bryan Garaventa, 2016)

The Wanderer

He was only a nomad, as many attest,
so not to worry whence fell the blow
that broke his quest and struck him low.

Nothing was found in the aftermath,
though many searched the misty paths
hoping to uncover the slightest hint
that one existed with such a craft.

This farce began when long ago
a yearly fair was thence decreed
by the ruler of that wooded realm,
ensconced within his armored keep.

The people though, ever oblivious
to the rigidity of their plight,
beheld this event with the complaisant fervor
that appeasements oft incite.

Beneath the shadowy arches of leafy boughs
hung paper lanterns, haphazardly strewn,
twisting in the winds from leaden clouds;
casting light in dazzling hues.

Groups paraded to and fro,
shallow dandies oft to crow
and strut betwixt the silhouettes
of dancers with their limbs aglow.

Trade was brisk throughout the night,
lovers paid lovers led in tow,
masquerades to cover up
the darkness in their soul.

Swirling sparks were cast in flight,
tempting angels spun and rolled,
a greasy magician yet to swindle
a piece or two of gold.

Amidst the sounds of desperate laughter,
pipes and drums and flutes were merged
into an ever roaring tidal surge
of merriment unmastered.

Within a clearing, tucked away,
a bonfire snapped, cracked, and swayed,
bathing all in lurid light
as the drunkards drank their pay away.

No one noticed his arrival,
a bent old man, gnarled with time,
quietly intent on the glowing embers;
torments reflected within his mind.

As a pebble causes ripples in a pond to spread,
time first stretched, then slowed, then stopped,
as everyone became enthralled
by the pall of utter dread.

The old man stood, stooped with age,
demonically lit by the burning coals,
observing his captive host as sage
condemner of their souls.

“See for thyself what thou hath wrought,” whispered he,
and all that were bound throughout the land, heard his words,
trembling at the fear now stirring
within their hearts, like restless birds.

The bonfire danced merrily,
straining at its bonds in glee,
popping and crackling joyfully
as its captors could not flee.

All those present within the wood
were frozen thus, a terrible jest;
their deceits; designs; desires laid bare
to all; naked to the rest.

Frigid winds began to blow,
mournfully howling betwixt the trees;
storm clouds scudded across the sky;
rumbling thunder shook the leaves.

Watching carefully, the old man waited,
wondering if he would be displaced
before the enlightenment he began
could willfully be embraced.

While a distant rumble began to grow,
a cloud of dust was seen to drift
ever nearer through the wood,
as horseman pounded across the rift.

Smiling sadly, the old man turned
to face the one as yet beguiled,
unable to fathom how one forsook
so many souls, however vile.

Long ago, before this fated confrontation,
the king suspected that a spirit dwelt
deep within his wooded realm,
never seen, though often felt.

So the king, shrewd and cunning,
devised a plan that would in time
unite the hatred of his people
by implying foul design.

He thus contrived a yearly fair;
whereby his subjects must attend
to sing and dance and set the snare
for the entrapment near the fen.

Nevertheless, year after year,
no sign of the being haunting the man
was ever found, inciting fear
and anger throughout the land.

Now though, finally,
he would have the one who plagued his nights,
chipping away at his sanity
with imaginary frights.

The king and his soldiers surrounded the spirit,
weapons to hand as they started to ride
in for the kill, poised to spear it
through the heart inside.

Before the king could slay his foe,
the old man looked to the sky in wroth,
to storming clouds through flakes of snow;
raising his blazing staff aloft.

“See for thyself what thou hath wrought!”,
the old man screamed in the rising wind,
as a bolt of lightning was thence unleashed,
blinding all as it struck him.

When sight returned to the petrified throng,
none could recall who had come
to free them from the siren song
that disillusion won.

So the king returned to his armored keep,
unsatisfied, yet again,
forever obsessing on what he had and lost;
failing to comprehend.

His people resumed their torpid lives,
unable to fathom how close they had been
to the freeing of their minds,
though all felt the ache of loss within.

He was only a nomad, as many attest,
so not to worry whence fell the blow
that broke his quest and struck him low.

(Bryan Garaventa, 2013)